2017年1月18日星期三

實作 HTML5 Gamepad API

最近再次拿起手掣玩遊戲,希望可以在錄製影像同時紀錄玩遊戲按按鈕等操作
讓觀眾可以欣賞玩家進行遊戲,同時可以了解玩家如何操作
最初使用 Java 希望可以達到跨平台效果,但發現有點麻煩
最後發現 Firefox 支援一個稱為 Gamepad API 的實驗性 API 可以達到相似效果


實際上 Gamepad API 已經開發了一段時間,早在 Firefox 24 已經投入其中
Firefox 可以到 about:config 的 dom.gamepad.enabled 啟動
Chrome 可以到 chrome://flags 的 enable-gamepad-extensions 啟動
由於必須支援 HTML5 ,因此編程上大可不用理會相容性,直接使用只支援 HTML5 的 HTML元件 及 Javascript語法 即可

由於手掣的動作在 Javascript 都是一種 event 因此先以
window.addEventListener('gamepadconnected', function(event){
    console.log(event.gamepad);
});
便可以偵測到已經連接的手掣
但不同瀏覽器對 gamepadconnect event 的實作方法都不一樣
  • 有些會在連接著打開網頁便可以立即偵測到
  • 有些需要不連接著,要開啟網頁後,連接時才能偵測到
  • 有些會在連接後,按下手掣上某個觸法按鈕,才能偵測到

能夠偵測連接手掣,亦有能夠偵測取消連接的 event
window.addEventListener('gamepaddisconnected', function(event){
    console.log(event.gamepad);
});
gamepaddisconnect event 則比較統一獲取已連接的手掣資訊

每一個手掣資訊最基本會包括:

id
手掣的類別名稱 作業系統、瀏覽器、手掣驅動程式會影響類別名稱
index
手掣在系統中的編號
connected
手掣是否連接系統
buttons
手掣的按鈕資訊
axes
手掣的轉軸資訊

當中的 gamepad.buttons 及 gamepad.axes 都是傳回 array
gamepad.buttons 會列出手掣上所有按鈕,由 0 開始
gamepad.axes 會列出手掣上所有轉軸,由 0 開始
預設的 buttons 中的 GamepadButton 物件有 pressed 及 value 的屬性,根據不同性質使用不同屬性
當 button
pressed 為 true 與 value 為 1 是相同,都是按下的意思
pressed 為 false 與 value 為 0 是相同,都是沒有按下的意思
可是不是所有瀏覽器對 button 都是 GamepadButton 的類別
Firefox 是以 GamepadButton 類別,可是 Chrome 則是以 DOMNumber 類別
在 Chrome 中,button 只會以數值傳回
若 button 為 0 是沒有按下,若 button 為大於 0 是按下

對於 axis (這裡的 axes 的單數不是 axe)
由於 axis 不能單純地表達按下及沒有按下的狀態 (不是指方向掣 (D-Pad) 的上下左右方向) 而是轉軸的位置
使用 方向掣 與 類比(Analog) 操作,因此本質相同,但概念上不同
axis 是介乎 -1 至 1 之間的資料, x 軸數值越小越偏向左,越大越偏向右,y 軸數值越小越偏向上,越大越偏向下
使用方向掣,例如按下左按鈕,實際是將 x 軸數設定為 -1 (或少於 0 的數值)

部分瀏覽器對 D-Pad 的操作會當成 button 的概念進行檢查
由於現在有不少手掣的 Trigger (PS3 的 L2 及 R2 按鈕或 XBox360 的 LT 及 RT 按鈕) 都有壓力感應模擬
會當作 axis 概念進行檢查,不使用時是 -1 而不是 0

由於需要不斷檢查 event 的狀態,可是使用如 for, while 等迴圈 (looping) 會因為太快不能顯示互動效果 (實際應該會 loop 死)
因此會使用 window.setTimeout 或 window.setInterval 並設定間距時間來模擬迴圈
但由於使用 window.setTimeout 或 window.setInterval 會因為固定了間距時間的數值
若果間距時間太少會佔用資源,但數值太大又不能產生即時互動的效果
幸好 Firefox 及其他瀏覽器陸續都支援 W3C 提出 HTML5 的 window.requestAnimationFrame
一般情況下 window.requestAnimationFrame 會以 60FPS (1秒60幀 ~ 0.016秒) 的速度更新,而且還會根據資源使用量調整 FPS 值
而使用 Gamepad API 必須使用 HTML5 ,因此建議使用 window.requestAnimationFrame 效果會比較好

但在下發現不同瀏覽器對 Gamepad 都有不同
Firefox 的 Gamepad 物件當 手掣 有變化時直接更新 Gamepad 中的屬性資料
但 Chrome 的 Gamepad 物件則不會更新內容,需要使用 navigator.getGamepads(); 不斷接收 Gamepad 物件的新資料
然而,如果同一電腦超過一個網頁,便只有第一個存取手掣的資料網頁能夠持續存取手掣的資料
另外, navigator.getGamepads(); 在不同瀏覽器又有不同結果, Firefox 會傳回 array ,Chrome 會傳回 GamepadList
不過兩者都可以使用 JavaScript 的 for each 語法列出內容,因此影響不大

較舊版的 Firefox 及 Chrome 因為實作方式更不統一,
window.requestAnimationFrame 及 navigator.getGamepads 可能需要使用前綴才能使用這些功能
Firefox 需要使用 window.mozRequestAnimationFrame 及 navigator.mozGetGamepads
Chrome 則需要使用 window.webkitRequestAnimationFrame 及 navigator.webkitGetGamepads
若想避免意外,可以使用
if (!!window.requestAnimationFrame){
    window.requestAnimationFrame(function(){
        // do something
    });
else if (!!window.mozRequestAnimationFrame){
    window.mozRequestAnimationFrame(function(){
        // do something
    });
else if (!!window.webkitRequestAnimationFrame){
    window.webkitRequestAnimationFrame(function(){
        // do something
    });
}

var gamepads = null;
if (!!navigator.getGamepads){
    gamepads = navigator.getGamepads();
else if (!!navigator.mozGetGamepads){
    gamepads = navigator.mozGetGamepads();
else if (!!navigator.webkitGetGamepads){
    gamepads = navigator.webkitGetGamepads();
}
if (gamepads != null){
    // do something
}

Javascript
(在下將不同功用的 JavaScript 分開,方便改動)

先前提及過不同作業系統、瀏覽器、手掣驅動程式會影響效果
因此需要根據不同作業系統、瀏覽器、手掣驅動程式而調整內容

default-driver.js
var drivers = {};

android-chrome-xbox360-0.js
if (!("Android" in drivers)){
    drivers["Android"] = {};
}
if (!("Chrome" in drivers["Android"])){
    drivers["Android"]["Chrome"] = {};
}
drivers["Android"]["Chrome"]["Microsoft X-Box 360 pad"] = {
    "style": "xbox360",
    "buttons": {
        "0": "cr",
        "1": "ci",
        "2": "sq",
        "3": "tr",
        "4": "l1",
        "5": "r1",
        "6": "l2",
        "7": "r2",
        "8": "se",
        "9": "st",
        "10": "l3",
        "11": "r3",
        "12": "du",
        "13": "dd",
        "14": "dl",
        "15": "dr",
        "16": "ho"
    },
    "axes": {
        "0": {"type": "analog", "key": "l3", "dimension": "x"},
        "1": {"type": "analog", "key": "l3", "dimension": "y"},
        "2": {"type": "analog", "key": "r3", "dimension": "x"},
        "3": {"type": "analog", "key": "r3", "dimension": "y"}
    }
};

android-firefox-xbox360-0.js
if (!("Android" in drivers)){
    drivers["Android"] = {};
}
if (!("Firefox" in drivers["Android"])){
    drivers["Android"]["Firefox"] = {};
}
drivers["Android"]["Firefox"]["android"] = {
    "style": "xbox360",
    "buttons": {
        "0": "cr",
        "1": "ci",
        "2": "sq",
        "3": "tr",
        "4": "l1",
        "5": "r1",
        "6": "l2",
        "7": "r2",
        "8": "se",
        "9": "st",
        "10": "l3",
        "11": "r3",
        "12": "du",
        "13": "dd",
        "14": "dl",
        "15": "dr",
        "16": "ho"
    },
    "axes": {
        "0": {"type": "analog", "key": "l3", "dimension": "x"},
        "1": {"type": "analog", "key": "l3", "dimension": "y"},
        "2": {"type": "analog", "key": "r3", "dimension": "x"},
        "3": {"type": "analog", "key": "r3", "dimension": "y"}
    }
};

linux-chrome-xbox360-0.js
if (!("Linux" in drivers)){
    drivers["Linux"] = {};
}
if (!("Chrome" in drivers["Linux"])){
    drivers["Linux"]["Chrome"] = {};
}
drivers["Linux"]["Chrome"]["Microsoft Inc. Controller (STANDARD GAMEPAD Vendor: 045e Product: 028e)"] = {
    "style": "xbox360",
    "buttons": {
        "0": "cr",
        "1": "ci",
        "2": "sq",
        "3": "tr",
        "4": "l1",
        "5": "r1",
        "6": "l2",
        "7": "r2",
        "8": "se",
        "9": "st",
        "10": "l3",
        "11": "r3",
        "12": "du",
        "13": "dd",
        "14": "dl",
        "15": "dr",
        "16": "ho"
    },
    "axes": {
        "0": {"type": "analog", "key": "l3", "dimension": "x"},
        "1": {"type": "analog", "key": "l3", "dimension": "y"},
        "2": {"type": "analog", "key": "r3", "dimension": "x"},
        "3": {"type": "analog", "key": "r3", "dimension": "y"}
    }
};

linux-chrome-xbox360-1.js
(在 Linux 使用 Chrome 連接 XBox360 手掣有兩種驅動程式)
if (!("Linux" in drivers)){
    drivers["Linux"] = {};
}
if (!("Chrome" in drivers["Linux"])){
    drivers["Linux"]["Chrome"] = {};
}
drivers["Linux"]["Chrome"]["Inno GamePad.. Inno GamePad.. (STANDARD GAMEPAD Vendor: 045e Product: 028e)"] = {
    "style": "xbox360",
    "buttons": {
        "0": "cr",
        "1": "ci",
        "2": "sq",
        "3": "tr",
        "4": "l1",
        "5": "r1",
        "6": "l2",
        "7": "r2",
        "8": "se",
        "9": "st",
        "10": "l3",
        "11": "r3",
        "12": "du",
        "13": "dd",
        "14": "dl",
        "15": "dr",
        "16": "ho"
    },
    "axes": {
        "0": {"type": "analog", "key": "l3", "dimension": "x"},
        "1": {"type": "analog", "key": "l3", "dimension": "y"},
        "2": {"type": "analog", "key": "r3", "dimension": "x"},
        "3": {"type": "analog", "key": "r3", "dimension": "y"}
    }
};

linux-firefox-xbox360-0.js
if (!("Linux" in drivers)){
    drivers["Linux"] = {};
}
if (!("Firefox" in drivers["Linux"])){
    drivers["Linux"]["Firefox"] = {};
}
drivers["Linux"]["Firefox"]["045e-028e-Microsoft X-Box 360 pad"] = {
    "style": "xbox360",
    "buttons": {
        "0": "cr",
        "1": "ci",
        "2": "sq",
        "3": "tr",
        "4": "l1",
        "5": "r1",
        "6": "se",
        "7": "st",
        "8": "ho",
        "9": "l3",
        "10": "r3"
    },
    "axes": {
        "0": {"type": "analog", "key": "l3", "dimension": "x"},
        "1": {"type": "analog", "key": "l3", "dimension": "y"},
        "2": {"type": "zbutton", "key": "l2", "dimension": "z"},
        "3": {"type": "analog", "key": "r3", "dimension": "x"},
        "4": {"type": "analog", "key": "r3", "dimension": "y"},
        "5": {"type": "zbutton", "key": "r2", "dimension": "z"},
        "6": {"type": "dpad", "key": {"<": "dl", ">": "dr"}, "dimension": "x"},
        "7": {"type": "dpad", "key": {"<": "du", ">": "dd"}, "dimension": "y"}
    }
};

windows-chrome-xbox360-0.js
if (!("Windows" in drivers)){
    drivers["Windows"] = {};
}
if (!("Chrome" in drivers["Windows"])){
    drivers["Windows"]["Chrome"] = {};
}
drivers["Windows"]["Chrome"]["Xbox 360 Controller (XInput STANDARD GAMEPAD)"] = {
    "style": "xbox360",
    "buttons": {
        "0": "cr",
        "1": "ci",
        "2": "sq",
        "3": "tr",
        "4": "l1",
        "5": "r1",
        "6": "l2",
        "7": "r2",
        "8": "se",
        "9": "st",
        "10": "l3",
        "11": "r3",
        "12": "du",
        "13": "dd",
        "14": "dl",
        "15": "dr",
        "16": "ho"
    },
    "axes": {
        "0": {"type": "analog", "key": "l3", "dimension": "x"},
        "1": {"type": "analog", "key": "l3", "dimension": "y"},
        "2": {"type": "analog", "key": "r3", "dimension": "x"},
        "3": {"type": "analog", "key": "r3", "dimension": "y"}
    }
};

windows-firefox-xbox360-0.js
if (!("Windows" in drivers)){
    drivers["Windows"] = {};
}
if (!("Firefox" in drivers["Windows"])){
    drivers["Windows"]["Firefox"] = {};
}
drivers["Windows"]["Firefox"]["xinput"] = {
    "style": "xbox360",
    "buttons": {
        "0": "cr",
        "1": "ci",
        "2": "sq",
        "3": "tr",
        "4": "l1",
        "5": "r1",
        "6": "l2",
        "7": "r2",
        "8": "se",
        "9": "st",
        "10": "l3",
        "11": "r3",
        "12": "du",
        "13": "dd",
        "14": "dl",
        "15": "dr"
    },
    "axes": {
        "0": {"type": "analog", "key": "l3", "dimension": "x"},
        "1": {"type": "analog", "key": "l3", "dimension": "y"},
        "2": {"type": "analog", "key": "r3", "dimension": "x"},
        "3": {"type": "analog", "key": "r3", "dimension": "y"}
    }
};

generic-gamepad.js
function GenericGamepad(gamepad, driver){
    var _driver = "" + gamepad.id;
    var _index = "" + gamepad.index;
    var _id = _driver + "[" + _index + "]";
    var _style = null;
    var _buttons = {};
    var _analogs = {};
    var _dpads = {};
    var _zbuttons = {};
    var _values = {};
    if (driver != null){
        _style = driver.style;
        for (var i in driver.buttons){
            _buttons[i] = new GenericGamepadButton(i, driver.buttons[i], gamepad.buttons[i].value);
        };
        for (var i in driver.axes){
            var axis = driver.axes[i];
            if (axis.type == "analog"){
                _analogs[i] = new GenericGamepadAnalog(i, axis.key, axis.dimension, gamepad.axes[i]);
            } else if (axis.type == "dpad"){
                _dpads[i] = new GenericGamepadDPad(i, axis.key, gamepad.axes[i]);
            } else if (axis.type == "zbutton"){
                _zbuttons[i] = new GenericGamepadZButton(i, axis.key, gamepad.axes[i]);
            } else if (axis.type == "value"){
                _values[i] = new GenericGamepadValue(i, axis.key, gamepad.axes[i]);
            }
        };
    }
    this.getDriver = function(){ return _driver; };
    this.getIndex = function(){ return _index;} ;
    this.getId = function(){ return _id; };
    this.getStyle = function(){ return _style; };
    this.getButtons = function(){ return _buttons; };
    this.getAnalogs = function(){ return _analogs; };
    this.getDPads = function(){ return _dpads; };
    this.getZButtons = function(){ return _zbuttons; };
    this.getValues = function(){ return _values; };
}

generic-gamepad-button.js
function GenericGamepadButton(index, reference, value){
    var _index = index;
    var _reference = reference;
    var _value = value;
    this.getIndex = function(){ return _index; };
    this.getReference = function(){ return _reference; };
    this.getValue = function(){ return _value; };
    this.isPressed = function(){ return this.getValue() > 0; };
}

generic-gamepad-analog.js
function GenericGamepadAnalog(index, reference, dimension, value){
    var _index = index;
    var _reference = reference;
    var _dimension = dimension;
    var _value = value;
    this.getIndex = function(){ return _index; };
    this.getReference = function(){ return _reference; };
    this.getDimension = function(){ return _dimension; };
    this.getValue = function(){ return _value; };
}

generic-gamepad-dpad.js
function GenericGamepadDPad(index, references, value){
    var _index = index;
    var _references = references;
    var _value = value;
    this.getIndex = function(){ return _index; };
    this.getReferences = function(){ return _references; };
    this.getValue = function(){ return _value; };
    this.getDirection = function(){
        if (this.getValue() < 0){
            return "<";
        } else if (this.getValue() > 0){
            return ">";
        } else {
            return "=";
        }
    };
}

generic-gamepad-zbutton.js
function GenericGamepadZButton(index, reference, value){
    var _index = index;
    var _reference = reference;
    var _value = value;
    this.getIndex = function(){ return _index; };
    this.getReference = function(){ return _reference; };
    this.getValue = function(){ return _value; };
    this.isPressed = function(){ return this.getValue() > -1; };
}

generic-gamepad-value.js
function GenericGamepadValue(index, references, value){
    var _index = index;
    var _references = references;
    var _value = value.toFixed(7);
    _value = _value.substring(0, _value.length - 1);
    this.getIndex = function(){ return _index; };
    this.getReferences = function(){ return _references; };
    this.getValue = function(){ return _value; };
}

user-agent.js
網上可能有更準確的 JavaScript User Agent Detector 來檢查作業系統或瀏覽器
function UserAgent(){
    var userAgent = navigator.userAgent.toLowerCase();
    var _os = null;
    if (userAgent.indexOf("win") >= 0){
        _os = "Windows";
    } else if (userAgent.indexOf("android") >= 0){
        _os = "Android";
    } else if (userAgent.indexOf("linux") >= 0){
        _os = "Linux";
    }
    var _browser = null;
    if (userAgent.indexOf("firefox") >= 0){
        _browser = "Firefox";
    } else if (userAgent.indexOf("chrome") >= 0){
        _browser = "Chrome";
    }
    this.getOS = function(){ return _os; };
    this.getBrowser = function(){ return _browser; };
}

gamepad-detector.js
function GamepadDetector(gamepadContainer, drivers){
    var userAgent = new UserAgent();
    console.log("Your OS is " + userAgent.getOS());
    console.log("Your browser is " + userAgent.getBrowser());
    var _gamepads = {};
    var _getDrivers = function(){
        var os = userAgent.getOS();
        var browser = userAgent.getBrowser();
        if (os in drivers && browser in drivers[os]){
            return drivers[os][browser];
        } else {
            return null;
        }
    };
    var _setGamepad = function(gamepad){
        var availableDrivers = _getDrivers();
        if (gamepad instanceof Gamepad && availableDrivers != null && gamepad.id in availableDrivers){
            var gamepad = new GenericGamepad(gamepad, availableDrivers[gamepad.id]);
            var id = gamepad.getId();
            var gamepadTemplate = document.getElementById(id);
            _gamepads[id] = gamepad;
            if (gamepadTemplate == null){
                gamepadTemplate = document.getElementById("xbox360-gamepad-template").cloneNode(true);
                gamepadTemplate.setAttribute("id", id);
                gamepadContainer.appendChild(gamepadTemplate);
            }
        }
    };
    var _removeGamepad = function(gamepad){
        if (gamepad instanceof Gamepad){
            var id = gamepad.id + "[" + gamepad.index + "]";
            var template = document.getElementById(id);
            if (template != null){
                template.parentNode.removeChild(template);
                delete _gamepads[id];
            }
        }
    };
    var _updateGamepads = function(){
        for (var i in _gamepads){
            var gamepad = _gamepads[i];
            var template = document.getElementById(gamepad.getId());
            var buttons = gamepad.getButtons();
            var analogs = gamepad.getAnalogs();
            var dpads = gamepad.getDPads();
            var zbuttons = gamepad.getZButtons();
            var values = gamepad.getValues();
            _updateGamepadButtons(template, buttons);
            _updateGamepadAnalogs(template, analogs);
            _updateGamepadDPads(template, dpads);
            _updateGamepadZButtons(template, zbuttons);
            _updateGamepadValues(template, values);
        }
        var gamepads = navigator.getGamepads();
        for (var i in gamepads){
            _setGamepad(gamepads[i]);
        }
        window.requestAnimationFrame(function(){
            _updateGamepads();
        });
    };
    var _referenceToElement = function(template, reference){
        return template.getElementsByClassName("template " + reference)[0];
    }
    var _updateGamepadButtons = function(template, buttons){
        for (var i in buttons){
            var button = buttons[i];
            _updateGamepadButton(template, button);
        }
    };
    var _updateGamepadButton = function(template, button){
        var element = _referenceToElement(template, button.getReference());
        if (element != null){
            element.setAttribute("fill-opacity", ((button.isPressed()) ? 1 : 0));
        }
    };
    var _updateGamepadAnalogs = function(template, analogs){
        for (var i in analogs){
            var analog = analogs[i];
            _updateGamepadAnalog(template, analog);
        }
    };
    var _updateGamepadAnalog = function(template, analog){
        var element = _referenceToElement(template, analog.getReference());
        if (element != null){
            var shadowElement = _referenceToElement(template, analog.getReference() + "-shadow");
            var baseElement = _referenceToElement(template, analog.getReference() + "-base");
            var name = "c" + analog.getDimension();
            var baseValue = baseElement.getAttribute(name);
            var value = baseValue - (-10 * analog.getValue());
            element.setAttribute(name, value);
            shadowElement.setAttribute(name, value);
        }
    };
    var _updateGamepadDPads = function(template, dpads){
        for (var i in dpads){
            var dpad = dpads[i];
            _updateGamepadDPad(template, dpad);
        }
    };
    var _updateGamepadDPad = function(template, dpad){
        var references = dpad.getReferences();
        var direction = dpad.getDirection();
        for (var i in references){
            var element = _referenceToElement(template, references[i]);
            if (element != null){
                element.setAttribute("fill-opacity", 0);
            }
        }
        if (direction != "="){
            var element = _referenceToElement(template, references[direction]);
            if (element != null){
                element.setAttribute("fill-opacity", 1);
            }
        }
    };
    var _updateGamepadZButtons = function(template, zbuttons){
        for (var i in zbuttons){
            var zbutton = zbuttons[i];
            _updateGamepadZButton(template, zbutton);
        }
    };
    var _updateGamepadZButton = function(template, zbutton){
        var element = _referenceToElement(template, zbutton.getReference());
        if (element != null){
            element.setAttribute("fill-opacity", ((zbutton.isPressed()) ? 1 : 0));
        }
    };
    var _updateGamepadValues = function(template, values){
        for (var i in values){
            var value = values[i];
            _updateGamepadValue(template, value);
        }
    };
    var _updateGamepadValue = function(template, value){
        _resetGamepadDPads(template);
        var references = value.getReferences();
        for (var i in references){
            var reference = references[i];
            if (i == value.getValue()){
                for (var j in reference){
                    var element = template.getElementsByClassName("template " + reference[j])[0];
                    if (element != null){
                        element.setAttribute("fill-opacity", 1);
                    }
                }
            }
        }
    };
    var _resetGamepadDPads = function(template){
        var defaultDPadReferences = ["du", "dd", "dl", "dr"];
        for (var i in defaultDPadReferences){
            var defaultDPadReference = defaultDPadReferences[i];
            var element = template.getElementsByClassName("template " + defaultDPadReference)[0];
            if (element != null){
                element.setAttribute("fill-opacity", 0);
            }
        }
    };
    this.start = function(){
        _updateGamepads();
    };
    window.addEventListener("gamepadconnected", function(event){
        var gamepad = event.gamepad;
        var availableDrivers = _getDrivers();
        if (gamepad instanceof Gamepad && availableDrivers != null && gamepad.id in availableDrivers){
            _setGamepad(gamepad);
            console.log("Gamepad: \"" + gamepad.id + "[" + gamepad.index + "]" + "\" is connected.");
        }
    });
    window.addEventListener("gamepaddisconnected", function(event){
        var gamepad = event.gamepad;
        if (gamepad instanceof Gamepad){
            _removeGamepad(gamepad);
            console.log("Gamepad: \"" + gamepad.id + "[" + gamepad.index + "]" + "\" is disconnected.");
        }
    });
}

initial.js
window.addEventListener("load", function(event){
    var gamepadContainer = document.getElementById("gamepad-container");
    var gamepadDetector = new GamepadDetector(gamepadContainer, drivers);
    gamepadDetector.start();
});

xbox360.svg
(網上有很多 XBox360 Gamepad SVG ,但在下將對視覺上不太影響的元件刪除,並加入需要的功能)
<svg width="320" height="203.21" version="1.1" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/2000/svg">
    <g stroke="#101010">
        <g fill="#c0c0c0">
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            <ellipse cx="114.96" cy="145.87" rx="33.507" ry="27.215"/>
            <ellipse cx="203.74" cy="146.24" rx="30.847" ry="22.899"/>
            <path d="m71.356 78.168c-17.88-3.1638-34.006 5.3862-36.019 19.098-2.0125 13.711 10.85 27.391 28.73 30.555 17.88 3.1638 34.006-5.3862 36.019-19.098 2.0128-13.711-10.85-27.391-28.73-30.555z"/>
            <ellipse cx="114.54" cy="149.66" rx="28.466" ry="23.566"/>
        </g>
        <g fill="#404040">
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            <ellipse cx="68.214" cy="107.63" rx="21.336" ry="15.425"/>
        </g>
        <path d="m199.43 47.373c-1.5347 0.37973-72.974 1.0892-78.042-0.22379-13.028-3.3745-24.604-6.6677-24.604-6.6677v0.59379s7.9628 2.6781 24.38 6.9685c6.3442 1.658 72.615 1.3414 78.265 0.22353 15.358-3.0386 27.393-7.1544 27.393-7.1544v-0.8941c0-2.63e-4 -12.441 3.4547-27.393 7.1542z" fill="#101010" stroke-width=".5"/>
        <path d="m227.55 54.903s-18.029 9.9795-31.862 15.539c-1.3575 0.54567-17.687 1.1203-34.671 0.96353-17.012-0.15673-34.679-1.0464-37.025-2.1787-12.269-5.9227-28.463-15.059-28.463-15.059v0.83362s11.384 6.8494 27.596 14.972c2.9963 1.5013 20.379 2.0483 37.795 2.2445 16.441 0.18487 32.855-0.076 35.478-1.0514 15.831-5.8874 31.76-15.71 31.76-15.71z" fill="#101010" stroke-width=".5"/>
    </g>
    <g>
        <ellipse cx="161.42" cy="104.72" rx="18.546" ry="15.049" fill="#40f000"/>
        <rect x="160.34" y="89.567" width="1.8737" height="31.574" fill="#c0c0c0"/>
        <rect x="141.55" y="104.42" width="39.447" height="1.8737" fill="#c0c0c0"/>
    </g>
    <ellipse cx="114.46" cy="152.67" rx="22.284" ry="18.066" fill="#808080" stroke-width="0"/>
    <path d="m135.97 147.57s-7.5015-0.17541-10.542-3.4323c-3.0405-3.2572-2.9148-8.4643-2.9148-8.4643s-4.2086-1.0687-8.0464-1.1755c-3.978-0.11045-7.765 1.1794-7.765 1.1794s0.43416 5.5456-2.606 8.8027c-3.0405 3.2569-10.854 2.7849-10.854 2.7849s-1.0519 2.6179-1.0519 5.3326c0 2.9229 1.2273 6.0457 1.2273 6.0457s7.6806-0.51805 10.504 2.305c2.8233 2.8225 2.5185 8.6313 2.5185 8.6313s4.5573 1.227 8.733 1.227c4.2922 0 8.7322-1.753 8.7322-1.753s-0.68951-2.7191 2.5682-7.4958c3.2574-4.7769 9.6311-4.3509 9.6311-4.3509s0.57854-2.1548 0.63192-4.6112c0.0553-2.5358-0.76525-5.0257-0.76525-5.0257z" fill="#808080" stroke-width="0"/>
    <g>
        <ellipse cx="114.46" cy="152.67" rx="22.284" ry="18.066" fill-opacity="0" stroke="#101010"/>
        <path d="m135.97 147.57s-7.5015-0.17541-10.542-3.4323c-3.0405-3.2572-2.9148-8.4643-2.9148-8.4643s-4.2086-1.0687-8.0464-1.1755c-3.978-0.11045-7.765 1.1794-7.765 1.1794s0.43416 5.5456-2.606 8.8027c-3.0405 3.2569-10.854 2.7849-10.854 2.7849s-1.0519 2.6179-1.0519 5.3326c0 2.9229 1.2273 6.0457 1.2273 6.0457s7.6806-0.51805 10.504 2.305c2.8233 2.8225 2.5185 8.6313 2.5185 8.6313s4.5573 1.227 8.733 1.227c4.2922 0 8.7322-1.753 8.7322-1.753s-0.68951-2.7191 2.5682-7.4958c3.2574-4.7769 9.6311-4.3509 9.6311-4.3509s0.57854-2.1548 0.63192-4.6112c0.0553-2.5358-0.76525-5.0257-0.76525-5.0257z" fill-opacity="0" stroke="#101010"/>
        <g fill="#ff0000" fill-opacity=".01">
            <path class="template du" d="m125.42 144.14c-3.0405-3.2572-2.9148-8.4643-2.9148-8.4643s-4.2086-1.0687-8.0464-1.1755c-3.978-0.11045-7.765 1.1794-7.765 1.1794s0.43416 5.5456-2.606 8.8027z"/>
            <path class="template dd" d="m103.92 160.95c2.8233 2.8225 2.5185 8.6313 2.5185 8.6313s4.5573 1.227 8.733 1.227c4.2922 0 8.7322-1.753 8.7322-1.753s-0.68951-2.7191 2.5682-7.4958z"/>
            <path class="template dl" d="m104.09 144.48c-3.0405 3.2569-10.854 2.7849-10.854 2.7849s-1.0519 2.6179-1.0519 5.3326c0 2.9229 1.2273 6.0457 1.2273 6.0457s7.6806-0.51805 10.504 2.305z"/>
            <path class="template dr" d="m135.97 147.57s-7.5015-0.17541-10.542-3.4323l1.0443 17.42c3.2574-4.7769 9.6311-4.3509 9.6311-4.3509s0.57854-2.1548 0.63192-4.6112c0.0553-2.5358-0.76525-5.0257-0.76525-5.0257z"/>
        </g>
        <g fill="#101010">
            <path d="m113.1 89.186v2.6737h1.5837q0.79673 0 1.178-0.32749 0.38615-0.33238 0.38615-1.0118 0-0.68431-0.38615-1.0069-0.38126-0.32749-1.178-0.32749zm0-3.0012v2.1996h1.4615q0.72341 0 1.0754-0.26884 0.35681-0.27372 0.35681-0.83095 0-0.55234-0.35681-0.82606-0.35194-0.27372-1.0754-0.27372zm-0.98736-0.8114h2.5222q1.1291 0 1.7401 0.46924t0.61099 1.3344q0 0.66965-0.31283 1.0656-0.31283 0.39592-0.91893 0.49368 0.7283 0.15641 1.1291 0.65498 0.40571 0.49368 0.40571 1.2366 0 0.97759-0.66477 1.5104-0.66476 0.53278-1.8916 0.53278h-2.6199z"/>
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            <path d="m129.01 87.407v0.84072q-0.38125-0.21018-0.7674-0.31283-0.38126-0.10754-0.77229-0.10754-0.87494 0-1.3588 0.55722-0.48391 0.55234-0.48391 1.5544 0 1.002 0.48391 1.5593 0.4839 0.55234 1.3588 0.55234 0.39103 0 0.77229-0.10265 0.38615-0.10753 0.7674-0.31772v0.83095q-0.37636 0.17597-0.78207 0.26395-0.40081 0.08798-0.85538 0.08798-1.2366 0-1.965-0.77718t-0.7283-2.0969q0-1.3393 0.73319-2.1067 0.73808-0.76741 2.0187-0.76741 0.41547 0 0.81139 0.08798 0.39592 0.0831 0.7674 0.25417z"/>
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實作效果可以到在到 https://hkgoldenmra.bitbucket.io/html5-gamepad-detector/index.html 測試

在使用 HTML5 Gamepad API 前,在下曾使用 Java 直接存取 /dev/input/js* 的資訊,並在 Terminal 顯示手掣狀態
但之後打算有較豐富的視覺效果,而使用 Java Swing 作圖像界面視示工具,但 Java Swing 在更新手掣的按鈕顯示時有延遲,效果並不流暢
另外, Windows 要存取手掣資訊需要使用 dll 的原生功能,導致 Java 都不能真正跨平台地存取手掣資訊
改用 HTML5 Gamepad API 除了基於跨平台性,還有因為瀏覽器能簡化多執行緒 (Multi-Threading) 的處理,減省很多多執行緒問題

對於 HTML5 Gamepad API ,桌面作業系統中 Firefox 的支援效果及流暢度比 Chrome 較好
但行動作業系統中 Chrome 則比 Firefox 好 (可能是因為 Android 及 Chrome 都是 Google 產品)

參巧資料
W3C 的 Gamepad API 的草擬文件, Gamepad@W3C https://www.w3.org/TR/gamepad/
Gamepad API 基本內容, Gamepad API - Web APIs | MDN https://developer.mozilla.org/en-US/docs/Web/API/Gamepad_API
Gamepad API 使用方法, Using the Gamepad API - Web APIs | MDN https://developer.mozilla.org/en-US/docs/Web/API/Gamepad_API/Using_the_Gamepad_API
顯示基本 Gamepad 按鈕及轉軸資料, HTML5 Gamepad Tester https://html5gamepad.com/

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